Soft tissues of the gums cover the lower and upper jaws, protecting the teeth from pathogens. Long-term gum disease causes not only pain but also can lead to tooth loss. At first, the disease may not be very disturbing, just a slight discomfort is felt when brushing your teeth. However, if you observe bleeding, swelling, redness, or other similar disturbing symptoms, remember that gum treatment must be done in time.
Main gum problems
Each tooth is located in its own hole – the alveolus in the jaw bone with the help of ligaments that are attached to it.
If the ligaments are not affected during the inflammatory process, then this disease is gingivitis, and if affected or even destroyed – periodontitis. In addition, if there are both inflammation and a dystrophic process, then this is periodontal disease.
This inflammation of the gums is accompanied by pain, swelling, and bleeding of the gums. The main reason is plaque, which promotes the growth of bacteria and the appearance of inflammation. Pain may not be very strong, but if gingivitis is not treated, it will turn into periodontitis, which is much more serious.
This inflammation of the gums affects the ligamentous apparatus, and possibly the bone tissue of the jaws. It is accompanied by bleeding, swelling of the gums, redness, and ulcers may occur on them.
Along with a soft plaque on the teeth, a hard one appears. If it penetrates under the gum, it injures it all the time. When ulcers appear on the gums, the patient start to have throbbing pain, the necks of the teeth may be exposed, and periodontal pockets may appear.
If the disease is not cured, then the bone tissue is affected. If the ligaments are severely affected or destroyed, then the teeth will loosen and even fall out.
This gum disease is rarer, characterized by receding gums and exposing the necks of the teeth, characterized by poor blood supply to the gums and, as a result, their absence of bleeding, gum atrophy may occur. The symptoms also include itching and increased sensitivity of the gums and teeth.
Causes that lead to gum disease
For proper treatment its cause has to be discovered:
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- poor daily brushing of teeth;
- growth of teeth with violations of the integrity of the gum shell;
- lowered immunity;
- lack of vitamins and minerals;
- mechanical damage;
- plaque or calculus on teeth.
Only a dentist can find out the real cause after the examination and give recommendations for treatment.