How Do Enzymes Work?

Enzymes are biological molecules that are typically composed of proteins. They are able to significantly speed up almost all chemical reactions that take place within any kinds of cells. 

Without enzymes, nothing that is alive would be able to exist because of all the important purposes that enzymes perform in the body. Enzymes are also responsible for helping with digestion and they aid in having a controlled metabolism. 

Enzymes come in a variety of different forms since they are prevalent in each and every part of the body. Enzymes are very particular in the minds of molecules that they’re willing to bind with and have a reaction with. The molecules that an enzyme is able to bind with is known as a substrate

What Is A Substrate?

Within chemistry, a substrate is the kind of chemical species that is being examined during chemical trials to see if there is a chemical reaction. Substrates are caused when it reacts to a reagent, and this in turn generates a product. When you’re running a chemical trail, you’ll want to ensure that you have reliable substrates so that you know you’re going to gain the intended result on a repetitive basis. 

ELISA substrates are known for providing a world-class level of sensitivity and stability and are typically used within the manufacturing of immunoassays. 

It is extremely important in chemical studies that the right kinds of substates are paired with the correct form of enzymes or a chemical reaction will fail to occur. 

Enzyme And Substrate Reactions

Scientists have two main theories about how enzymes and ELISA substrates interact with one another.

In the first method, known as the lock-and-key model, the active part of the enzyme is very specifically shaped to only hold a particular kind of substrate. This model gains its name because the substrate has to have the exact kind of shape to fit with the enzyme, giving it the visual of a key fitting into the lock that was made for it. 

The other kind of model is known as the induced-fit model. In this method, the enzyme and the substrate don’t fit perfectly together from the beginning. Instead when the enzyme and the substrate interact with each other, they both alter their shape so that a connection can be made. 

Scientists are not currently sure which one of these models is the true relationship between enzymes and substrates. Once the two pair together though, the reactions that take place between them are accelerated massively- over a millionfold. 

From there, the chemical reaction causes the creation of a new molecule or product that separates from the enzyme. After this new molecule or product has separated, then it will go to a different part of the body to create other kinds of necessary reactions. 

In this way, enzymes and substrates are necessary for keeping the body functioning. Without them, other molecules that your body needs to live would fail to exist.