Infertility refers to the impossibility of becoming pregnant naturally for a long period of time, provided that a couple has regular sexual activity. The following infertility stages are distinguished:
- Primary – if conception did not happen even during the whole period of life;
- Secondary – if at least one pregnancy has occurred, regardless of its outcome (childbirth, miscarriage or abortion).
In order to identify the cause of infertility, it is recommended for both partners to pass various tests.
The main method that is used to examine a man is an analysis of the sperm. The analysis determines the cell composition of the sperm and its quality, morphology, and mobility. This is the initial stage of infertility diagnosis. Male infertility treatment can be carried out conservatively or surgically. After identifying the possibility of an inflammatory process in the reproductive organs, sexually transmitted diseases, endocrine-caused infertility, the patient is given a medication therapy. With obstructive infertility, the cause of which is the compression or blockage of the vas deferens, surgical intervention is necessary, which is most effective at a young age. In some cases, doctors need to apply high-tech methods.
Determining the causes of female infertility is somewhat more difficult, and the process begins with a gynecological examination and ultrasound testing. Depending on the causes identified during the examination, the woman is offered one of the standard infertility treatment regimens.
This may be a conservative treatment aimed at restoring hormonal balance or anti-inflammatory, antifungal or antibacterial therapy in case of revealing chronic diseases of the reproductive system. In some cases, it is necessary to apply surgery, namely when infertility is caused by a trauma of the reproductive system. Sometimes the causes of infertility are associated with psychological trauma, and such patients are treated by a psychotherapist. Drug treatment is indicated if the woman’s infertility is caused by an endocrine system dysfunction or has an immunological nature.
If the problem cannot be solved by conventional methods, fertility specialists use artificial insemination methods. During IVF, sperm with eggs are put in a test tube, and after fertilization, the ovum is placed in the uterus of a barren woman or a surrogate mother.
According to international in vitro fertilization specialists, the prognosis depends on the factors that prevent the couple from becoming pregnant, the duration of the pathology, the age of patients, as well as whether a timely and appropriate treatment is carried out. In most cases, infertility is curable.