What are the Long Term Effects of Traumatic Brain Injury?

There are a number of long term effects that can result from a brain injury. Traumatic Brain Injury, or TBI, is classified as mild, moderate, or severe and may involve debilitating and permanent damage. Therapy and treatment are necessary to restore cognitive, physical, sensory, and emotional areas of function. Moderate to severe brain injuries may take years for a patient to heal, and realize a full or improved recovery. There are some major categories that have some lasting effects that are indirectly or directly involved with TBI.


Cognitive Effects

Cognitive effects, which deal with the thinking and understanding process, are a very possible side effect from TBI. One of the most common ailments is a state of memory loss, either short or long term. This is also referred to as post-traumatic amnesia, where the patient has trouble remembering incidents or activities just before the injury. Patients my show attention and concentration problems, coupled with issues dealing with language and communication. There may be a lack of understanding directions or instructions which may manifest as a state of confusion. Depending upon the location and severity of the brain injury, the senses may become hampered, like loss of vision, lack of taste, smell and hearing. Cognitive issues are diagnosed and treated by a neuropsychologist to restore and reprogram specific impairments.


Sensory Effects

Sensory effects such as writing and drawing may prove difficult with TBI. It is only through repetitive training that patients can relearn skills such as reading and writing. They must begin with a slow and deliberate pace to re-familiarize the patient’s recognition and memory of the skill. Patients may have to re-learn spatial relations, and depth perception problems by undergoing lessons and treatments that emphasize interaction and reintroduction to the environment. Patients may have problems with puzzles and building blocks, forgetting how objects relate and fit with one another.


Emotional Effects

According to the Cantini law group, personality traits may be affected in the long term with TBI. This area would involve anything behavioral related, such as fits and moods of depression, anxiety, frustration, confusion, and even acts of unprovoked violence. Other negative emotional symptoms may be demonstrating inappropriate behavior, such as laughing, impulsive decision making that is illogical, or a lack of self-control during times where quietness and subtly are called for. Such abnormal behaviorism should be controlled by the use of specific medications, counseling, and therapy or all of these treatment methods.


Physical Effects

Physical effects may include seizures or spasms when the brain injury involves hematomas or contusions. Damaged areas of the brain that control locomotion, coordination, and balance may be disturbed, disabling a person from walking correctly, or negotiating objects in their path. Paralysis is another disorder that may affect certain parts of the body, depending upon what area of the brain was damaged. According to the personal injury firms fredericton, paralysis may be confined to the left or right side of the body, opposite of the brain injury location. Patients may need the assistance of locomotion devices, such as a walker, cane, or even wheelchair to restore mobility. Physical effects are commonly treated by physical therapy and exercise, restoring muscle response, balance, coordination and reaction time.


People who have suffered brain injury as a result of an accident should immediately obtain the services of a qualified medical care specialist who specializes in brain injury diagnosis and treatment. This is important before extenuating complications set it. The brain is one of the most mysterious organs and requires special care. TBI can be treated and medicated with certain types of treatments and the patience of the family involved.